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A great example for a publication such as this one.
This means just what it says it does. Discrete structures come in the form of matrices, series of whole numbers (discrete integers: 1,2,3,4,5, etc), or eigenvalues. Phenomena in nature that are discrete include the possible orbital shells of electrons (eigenvalues), binary arithmetic, integral values of the Fibonacci series that explain the number of segments in a seashell, or the number of seeds in a sunflower, etc.
Many problems in business and science can be addressed with discrete mathematics, including optimizations among alternatives, mathematically rotating structures in 3D space, etc.